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Chicago Health Aging and
Social Relations Study (CHASRS)

Overview

The purpose of the National Institute of Aging Program Project Grant No. PO1 AG18911 ("Social isolation, loneliness, health, and the aging process") is to bring together sociological, psychological, and biological levels of analyses to bear on the relationships among, and mechanisms underlying, social isolation, feelings of loneliness, health, and the aging process. Social relationships are fundamental to emotional fulfillment, behavioral adjustment, and cognitive function. Recent research has shown that emotional closeness in relationships increases with age. Yet the number of social relationships decreases and social events triggering loneliness continue in older adults. Moreover, they are physically aging and tend to be less resilient so these psychosocial challenges could potentially leave them vulnerable to feelings of loneliness, dysphoria, elevated and prolonged neuroendocrine stress responses, and ill health. Feelings of social isolation and loneliness predict morbidity and mortality from broad based causes in later life even after controlling for health behaviors and biological risk factors. Understanding the antecedents of feelings of loneliness and their consequences for mental and physical health can thus be studied effectively in older adults and is particularly important because life expectancy has increased in the U.S., increasing dramatically the number of older adults.

The Program Project Grant from the National Institute of Aging has made it possible to study these issues in an interdisciplinary manner. Medical scientists, social scientists, behavioral scientists, and medical practitioners (e.g., geriatricians) work collaboratively under the auspices of the program project grant. The Program Project Grant has also contributed to the development of new investigators (both M.D.s and Ph.D.s) in whose hands the future of the field rests. We, therefore, gratefully acknowledge the early funding by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the ongoing support by the National Institute of Aging, and the ancillary funding by the John Templeton Foundation.

Illustrative Publications

Where available, click on the PDF to download the corresponding article. All articles are the sole copyright of the respective publishers. Materials are provided for educational purposes only.

In Press

Cacioppo, J. T., & Hawkley, L. C. (in press). Designed for social influence. In D. Kenrick (Ed.), Six Degrees of Social Influence: Science, Application, and the Psychology of Robert Cialdini. New York: Oxford University Press.

Cacioppo, J. T., & Hawkley, L. C. (in press). Perceived isolation. In D. Cervone, M. W. Wysenck, M. Fajkowska, & T. Marszewski (Eds.), Personality Dynamics: Embodiment, Meaning Construction, and the Social World. Warsaw Lectures on Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 3. Clinton Corners, NY: Eliot Werner Publications.

Cacioppo, J. T., Hawkley, L. C., & Correll, J. (in press). Percieved social isolation within personal and evolutionary timescales. In C. N. DeWall (Ed.), Handbook of Social Exclusion. New York: Oxford University Press.

Cacioppo, J. T., & Ortigue, S. (in press). Social neuroscience: How a multidisciplinary field is uncovering the biology of human interactions. Cerebrum.

Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (in press). Loneliness and health. In M. Gellman and J. R. Turner (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine. New York: Springer.

Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (in press). Social connectedness and health. In C. Hazan and P. Shaver (Eds.), New York: Guilford.

Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (in press). Social connection and relationships in successful aging. In J. M. Rippe (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Lifestyle Medicine and Health. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Majka, E. A., & Cacioppo, J. T. (in press). Loneliness. In M. Gellman and J. R. Turner (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine. New York, NY: Springer.

Masi, C. M., Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (in press). Serum 2-methoxyestradiol, an estrogen metabolite, is positively associated with serum HDL-C in a population-based sample. Lipids.

Norman, G. J., Cacioppo, J. T., Morris, J. S., Karelina, K., Malarkey, W. B., DeVries, A. C., & Berntson, G. G. (in press). Selective influences of oxytocin on the evaluative processing of social stimuli. Journal of Psychopharmacology.

Norman, G. J., Hawkley, L. C., Luhmann, M., Ball, A., Cole, S., Berntson, G. G., & Cacioppo, J. T. (in press). Variations in oxytocin receptor gene influences neurocardiac stress reactivity to social stress and HPA function: A population based study. Hormones and Behavior.

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2012

Cacioppo, J. T., Berntson, G. G., & Decety, J. (2012). A history of social neuroscience. In A. W. Kruglanski & W. Stroebe (Eds.), Handbook of the History of Social Psychology (pp. 97-110). New York: Psychology Press.

Cacioppo, J. T., Berntson, G. G., Norris, C. J., & Gollan, J. K. (2012). The evaluative space model. In P. VanLange, A. Kruglanski, & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology, Vol. 1 (pp. 50-72). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Press.

Norman, G. J., DeVries, A. C., Hawkley, L. C., Cacioppo, J. T., & Berntson, G. G. (2012). Social influences on physiological processes: A focus on health. In R. Wright & G. Gendolla (Eds.), Motiviation Perspectives in Cardiovascular Response (pp. 307-326). Washington D. C.: American Psychological Association Press.

Ye., L., Hawkley, L. C., Waite, L., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2012). Loneliness, health, and mortality in old age: A national longtitudinal study. Social Science & Medicine.

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2011

Cacioppo, J. T., & Berntson, G. G. (2011). The brain, homeostasis, and health: Balancing demands of the internal and external milieu. In H. S. Friedman (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Health of Psychology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Cacioppo, J. T., Berntson, G. G., Bechara, A., Tranel, D., & Hawkley, L. C. (2011). Could an aging brain contribute to subjective well being?: The value added by a social neuroscience perspective. In A. Tadorov, S. T. Fiske, & D. Prentice (Eds.), Social Neuroscience: Toward Understanding the Underpinnings of the Social Mind (pp. 249-262). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Cacioppo, J. T., Hawkley, L. C., Norman, G. J., & Berntson, G. G. (2011). Social isolation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1231, 17-22. PDF

Cacioppo, J. T., Hawkley, L. C., & Patrick, W. (2011). Lonely planet? RSA Journal, Autumn 2011, 10-15. PDF

Cacioppo, J. T., Reis, H. T., & Zautra, A. J. (2011). Social resilience: The value of social fitness with an application to the military. American Psychologist, 66, 43-51. PDF

Cole, S. W., Hawkley, L. C., Arevalo, J. M. G., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2011). Transcript origin analysis identifies antigen presenting cells as primary targets of socially regulated leukocyte gene expression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 3080-3085. PDF

Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2011). Perceived social isolation: Social threat vigilance and its implications for health (pp. 765-775). The Oxford Handbook of Social Neuroscience. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hawkley, L. C., Lavelle, L. A., Berntson, G. G., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2011). Mediators of the relationship between socioeconomic status and allostatic load in the Chicago, Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study (CHASRS).  Psychophysiology, 48, 1134-1145. PDF

Hawkley, L. C., Preacher, K., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2011). As we said, loneliness, (not living alone) predicts individual differences in sleep quality: A reply. Health Psychology, 30, 136. PDF

Hawkley, L. C., Williams, K. D., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2011). Responses to ostracism across adulthood. Social, Cognitive, and Affective Neuroscience, 6, 234-243. PDF

Kurina, L. M., Knutson, K. L., Hawkley, L. C., Cacioppo, J. T., Lauderdale, D. S., & Ober, C. (2011). Loneliness is associated with sleep fragmentation in a communal society. Sleep, 34, 1519-1526. PDF

Masi, C. M., Chen, H. Y., Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2011). A meta-analysis of interventions to reduce loneliness. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 15(3), 219-266. PDF

Norman, G. J., Cacioppo, J. T., Morris, J. S., Malarkey, W. B., Berntson, G. G., & DeVries, C. A. (2011). Oxytocin increases autonomic cardiac control: Moderation by loneliness. Biological Psychology, 86, 174-180. PDF

Norman, G. J., DeVries, A. C., Cacioppo, J. T., & Berntson, G. G. (2011). Multilevel analysis of stress. In R. J. Contrada & A. Baum (Eds.), Handbook of Stress Science: Psychology, Biology, and Health, (pp. 619-634). New York: Springer.

Patel, S., Hawkley, L. C., Cacioppo, J. T., & Masi, C. M. (2011). Dietary fiber and serum 16a-hydroxyestrone, an estrogen metabolite associated with lower systolic blood pressure. Nutrition, 27, 778-781. PDF

VanderWeele, T. J., Hawkley, L. C., Thisted, R. A., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2011). A marginal structural model analysis for loneliness: Implications for intervention trials and clinical practice. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 79, 225-235. PDF

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2010

Cacioppo, J. T., Hawkley, L. C., & Thisted, R. A. (2010). Perceived social isolation makes me sad: Five year cross-lagged analyses of loneliness and depressive symptomatology in the Chicago, Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study. Psychology and Aging, 25, 453-463. PDF

Distel, M. A., Rebollo-Mesa, I., Adbellaoui, A., Derom, C. A., Willemsen, G., Cacioppo, J. T., & Boomsma, D. I. (2010). Familial resemblance for loneliness. Behavior Genetics. PDF

Hawkley, L. C., Preacher, K. J., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2010). Loneliness impairs daytime functioning but not sleep duration. Health Psychology, 29, 124-129. PDF

Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2010). How can I connect with thee: Measuring and comparing satisfaction in multiple relationship domains. Journal of Individual Psychology, 66(1), pp. 43-67. PDF

Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2010). Loneliness matters: A theoretical and empirical review of consequences and mechanisms. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 40(2), 218. PDF

Hawkely, L. C., Thisted, R. A., Masi, C. M., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2010). Loneliness preducts increased blood pressure: Five-year cross-lagged analysis in middle-aged and older adults. Psychology and Aging, 25, 132-141. PDF

Hawkley, L. C., Thisted, R. A., Masi, C. M., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2010). Loneliness affects long-term cardiovascular health. Clinician's Research Digest, 28(6).

Masi, C., Cacioppo, J. T., Hawkley, L. C., & Yuan, H. (2010). A meta-analysis of interventions to reduce loneliness. Personality and Social Psychology Review.

Norman, G. J., DeVries, A. C., Cacioppo, J. T., & Berntson, G. G. (2010). Multilevel analysis of stress. In R. J. Contrada & A. Baum (Eds.), Handbook of Stress Science: Psychology, Biology, and Health: Springer Publishing Company.

Norman, G. J., Cacioppo, J. T., & Berntson, G. G. (2010). Social neuroscience of motivation & health. The Handbook of Social Neuroscience: Oxford University Press.

Norman, G. J., DeVries, A. C., Hawkley, L. C., Cacioppo, J. T., & Berntson, G. G. (2010). Social influence on physiological processes: A focus on health. In R. Wright & G. Gendolla (Eds). Motivation Perspectives in Cardiovascular Response, Washington DC: American Psychological Association Press.

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2009

Berntson, G. G., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2009). Peripheral psychophysiology. In D. Sander & K. Scherer (Eds.), Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences. New York: Oxford University Press.

Berntson, G. G., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2009). The autonomic nervous sytem. In D. Sander & K. Scherer (Eds.), Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences. New York: Oxford University Press.

Cacioppo, J. T., Fowler, J. H., & Christakis, N. A. (2009). Alone in the crowd: The structure and spread of loneliness in a large social network. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(6), 977-991. PDF

Cacioppo, J. T., & Hawkley, L. C. (2009). Loneliness. In M. R. Leary & R. H. Hoyle (Eds.), Handbook of Individual Differences in Social Behavior (pp. 227-239). New York: Guilford.

Cacioppo, J. T., & Hawkley, L. C. (2009). Perceived social isolation and cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13(10), 447-454. PDF

Cacioppo, J. T., Norris, C. J., Decety, J., Monteleone, G., & Nusbaum, H. (2009). In the eye of the beholder: Individual differences in perceived social isolation predict regional brain activation to social stimuli. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 83-92. PDF

Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2009). Loneliness. In H. Reis & S. Sprecher (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Human Relationships (pp. 985-990). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Press.

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2008

Bartels, M., Cacioppo, J. T., Hudziak, J. J., & Boomsma, D. I. (2008). Genetic and environmental contributions to stability in loneliness throughout childhood. American Journal of Medical Genetic Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 147B, 385-391. PDF

Berntson, G. G., Norman, G. J., Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2008). Spirituality and autonomic cardiac control. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 35, 198-208. PDF

Cacioppo, J. T., Berntson, G. G., & Thisted, R. A. (2008). Multilevel investigations: Conceptual mappings and perspectives. In Weinstein, M., Vaupel, J. W., & Wachter, K. W. (Eds.), Biosocial Surveys (pp. 367-380). Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. PDF

Cacioppo, J.T., Hawkley, L.C., Kalil, A., Hughes, M.E., Waite, L., & Thisted, R.A. (2008). Happiness and the invisible threads of social connection: The Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study. In M. eid & R. Larsen (Eds.), The science of well-being (pp. 195-219) New York: Guilford. PDF

Epley, N., Akalis, S., Waytz, A., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2008). Creating social connection through inferential reproduction: Loneliness and perceived agency in gadgets, gods, and greyhounds. Psychological Science, 19, 114-120. PDF

Epley, N., Waytz, A., Akalis, S., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2008). When we need a human: Motivational determinants of anthropomorphism. Social Cognition, 26, 143-155. PDF

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2007

Berntson, G. G. & Cacioppo, J. T. (2007). Integrative physiology: Homeostasis, allostasis and the orchestration of systemic physiology. In J. T. Cacioppo, L. G. Tassinary, & G. G. Berntson (Eds.), Handbook of psychophysiology, 3rd edition, (pp.433-452). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Boomsma, D. I., Cacioppo, J. T., Muthen, B., Asparouhov, T., & Clark, S. (2007).Longitudinal genetic analysis for loneliness in Dutch twins.Twin Research and Human Genetics, 10, 267-273. PDF

Cacioppo, J. T., Berntson, G. G. (2007). The brain, homeostasis, and health: Balancing demands of the internal and external milieu. In H. S. Friedman & R. Cohen Silver (Eds.), Foundations of Health Psychology (pp. 73-91). New York: Oxford University Press. PDF

Cacioppo, J. T., Berntson, G. G., & Thisted, R. A. (2007).Multilevel investigations:Conceptual mappings and perspectives.In Weinstein, M., Vaupel, J. W., & Wachter, K. W. (Eds.), Biosocial surveys.Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

Cacioppo, J. T., Tassinary, L. G., & Berntson, G. G. (2007). Psychophysiological science: Interdisciplinary approaches to classic questions about the mind. In J. T. Cacioppo, L. G. Tassinary, & G. G. Berntson (Eds.), Handbook of psychphysiology, 3rd edition (pp. 1-18). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Cole, S. W., Hawkley, L. C., Arevalo, J. M., Sung, C. Y., Rose, R. M., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2007).Social regulation of gene expression in human leukocytes.Genome Biology, 8(9), R189. PDF

Epley, N., Waytz, A., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2007).On seeing human: A three-factor theory of anthropomorphism.Psychological Review, 114, 864-886. PDF

Hawkley, L. C., Bosch, J. A., Engeland, C. G., Marucha, P. T., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2007). Loneliness, dsyphoria, stress and immunity: A role of cytokines. In N. P. Plotnikoff, R. E. Faith, & A. J. Murgo (Eds)., Cytokines: Stress and immunity (2nd ed., pp. 67-86). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2007).Aging and loneliness: Downhill quickly?Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 187-191. PDF

Hawkley, L. C., Preacher, K. J., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2007).Multilevel modeling of social interactions and mood in lonely and socially connected individuals: The MacArthur social neuroscience studies.In A. D. Ong & M. van Dulmen (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Methods in Positive Psychology (pp. 559-575). New York: Oxford University Press.

Kudielka, B.M., Hawkley, L. C., Adam, E. K., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2007).Compliance with ambulatory saliva sampling in the Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study (CHASRS) and associations with social support.Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 34, 209-216. PDF

Masi, C. M., Hawkley, L. C., Rickett, E. M., & J. T. Cacioppo. (2007). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and diseases of aging: Obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Biological Psychology, 74, 212-223. PDF

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2006

Adam, E. K., Hawkley, L.C., Kudielka, B. M., & Cacioppo, J.T. (2006). Day-to-day dynamics of experiencee-cortisol associations in a population-based sample of older adults. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, 17058-17063. PDF

Berntson, G. G., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2006). Multilevel analysis: Physiological and biochemical measures. In M. Eid & E. Diener (Eds.), Handbook of multimethod measurement in psychology (pp. 157-172). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Boomsma, D. I., Cacioppo, J. T., Slagboom, P. E., & Posthuma, D. (2006). Genetic linkage and association analysis for loneliness in Dutch twin and sibling pairs points to a region on chromosome 12q23-24. Behavior Genetics. PDF

Cacioppo, J. T., & Berntson, G. G. (2006). A bridge linking social psychology and the neurosciences. In Paul A. M. Van Lange (Ed.), Bridging social psychology: The benefits of transdisciplinary approaches. Hillsdale, NJ, Erlbaum. PDF

Cacioppo, J. T., Hawkley, L. C., Ernst, J. M., Burleson, M., Berntson, G. G., Nouriani, B., & Spiegel, D. (2006). Loneliness within a nomological net: An evolutionary perspective. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 1054-1085. PDF

Cacioppo, J. T., Hughes, M. E., Waite, L. J., Hawkley, L. C., & Thisted, R. A. (2006). Loneliness as a specific risk factor for depressive symptoms: Cross sectional and longitudinal analyses. Psychology and Aging, 21, 140-151. PDF

Cavigelli, S. A., Yee, J. R., & McClintock, M. K. (2006). Infant temperament predicts life span in female rats that develop spontaneous tumors. Hormones and Behavior, 50, 454-462. PDF

Hawkley, L. C., Masi, C. M., Berry, J. D., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2006). Loneliness is a unique predictor of age-related differences in systolic blood pressure. Psychology and Aging, 21, 152-164. PDF

Hermes, G. L., Rosenthal, L., Montag, A., & McClintock, M. K. (2006). Social isolation and the inflammatory response: Sex differences inthe enduring effects of a prior stressor. American Joural of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative & Comparative Physiology, 290, R273-282. PDF

Hughes, M. E., & Waite, L, J. (2006). The aging of the second demographic transition". In Social Structures: The Impact of Demographic Changes on the Well-being of Older Persons, eds K. Warner Schaie and Peter Uhlenberg. New York: Springer.

Masi, C. M., Hawkley, L. C., Berry, J. D., & Cacioppo, J. T. (in press). Estrogen metabolites and systolic blood pressure in a population-based sample of postmenopausal women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 91, 1015-1020. PDF

McDade, T. W., Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2006). Psychological and behavioral predictors of inflammation in middle-aged and older adults: The Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 68, 376-381. PDF

Smith, N. K., Larsen, J. T., Chartrand, T. L., Cacioppo, J. T., Katafiasz, H. A., & Moran, K. E. (2006). Being bad isn't always good: Evaluative context moderates the attention bias toward negative information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 210-220. PDF

Waite, L. J. (2006). Population and Development Review, Vol. 30(supplement).

Wen, M., Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2006). Objective and perceived neighborhood environment, individual SES and psychosocial factors, and self-rated health: An analysis of older adults in Cook County, Illinois. Social Science & Medicine, 63, 2575-2590. PDF

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2005

Boomsma, D. I., Willemse, G., Dolan, C. V., Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2005). Genetic and environmental contributions to loneliness in adults: The Netherlands Twin Register Study. Behavior Genetics, 35, 745-752. PDF

Bosch, J. A., Berntson, G. G., Cacioppo, J. T., & Marucha, P. T. (2005). Differential mobilization of functionally distinct Natural Killer subsets during acute psychological stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 366-375. PDF

Cacioppo, J. T., Berntson, G. G., & Semin, G. R. (2005). Scientific symbiosis: The mutual benefit of Iteratively adopting the perspective of realism and instrumentalism. American Psychologist, 60, 347-348. PDF

Cacioppo, J. T., & Hawkley, L. C. (2005). People thinking about people: The vicious cycle of being a social outcast in one's own mind. In Kipling D. Williams, Joseph P. Forgas, and William von Hippel (Eds.), The social outcast: Ostracism, social exclusion, rejection, and bullying (pp. 91-108). New York: Psychology Press.

Cacioppo, J. T., Hawkley, L. C., Rickett, E. M., & Masi, C. M. (2005). Sociality, spirituality, and meaning-making: Chicago health, aging, and social relations study (CHASRS). Review of General Psychology, 9, 143-155. PDF

Cavigelli, S. A., Monfort, S. L., Whitney, T. K., Mechref, Y.S., Novotny, M., McClintock, M. K. (2005). Frequent serial fecal corticoid measures from rats reflect circadian and ovarian corticosterone rhythms.Journal of Endocrinology, 184, 153 - 163. PDF

Hawkley, L. C., Berntson, G. G., Engeland, C. G., Marucha, P. T., Masi, C. M., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2005). Stress, aging, and resilience: Can accrued wear and tear be slowed? Canadian Psychology, 46, 115-125. PDF

Hawkley, L. C., Browne, M. W., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2005). How can I connect with thee? Let me count the ways. Psychological Science, 16, 798-804. PDF

Hermes, G. L., Jacobs, L. F., McClintock, M.K. (2005) The sectored foraging field: a novel design to quantify spatial strategies, learning, memory, and emotion. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 84, 69-73. PDF

Luo, Y., & Waite, L. J. (2005). The impact of childhood and adult SES on physical, mental, and cognitive well-being in later life. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 60B, S93-S101. PDF

McClintock, M.K., Conzen, S.D., Gehlert, S., Masi, C., Olopade, F. (2005) Mammary cancer and social interactions: Identifying multiple environments that regulate gene expression throughout the life span.Journal of Gerontology, Series B, 60 B (Special Issue 1) 32-41. PDF

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2004

Cacioppo, J. T., & Berntson, G. G. (2004). Social neuroscience. In M. Gazzaniga (Ed.), The cognitive neurosciences (3rd edition, pp. 977-986). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Cacioppo, J. T., Semin, G. R., & Berntson, G. G. (2004). Realism, instrumentalism, and scientific symbiosis: Psychological theory as a search for truth and the discovery of solutions. American Psychologist, 59, 214-223. PDF

Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2004). Stress and the aging immune system. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 18, 114-119. PDF

Hughes, M. E., & Waite, L. J. (2004). The American family as a context for healthy ageing. The Family in an Aging Society: A Multi-Disciplinary Approach, ed. S Harper. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pages 176-189. PDF

Hughes, M. E., Waite, L. J., Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2004). A short scale for measuring loneliness in large surveys: Results from two population-based studies. Research on Aging, 26, 655-672. PDF

Masi, C. M., Rickett, E. M., Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2004). Gender and ethnic differences in urinary stress hormones: The population-based Chicago health, aging, and social relations study. Journal of Applied Physiology, 97, 941-947. PDF

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2003

Burleson, M. H., Poehlmann, K. M., Hawkley, L. C., Ernst, J. M., Berntson, G. G., Malarkey, W. B., Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Glaser, R., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2003). Neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactivity to stress in mid-aged and older women: Long-term temporal consistency of individual differences. Psychophysiology, 40, 358-369. PDF

Cacioppo, J. T., & Hawkley, L. C. (2003). Social isolation and health, with an emphasis on underlying mechanisms. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 46, S39-S52. PDF

Cacioppo, J. T., Hawkley, L. C., & Berntson, G. G. (2003). The anatomy of loneliness. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12, 71-74. PDF

Cavigelli, S. A., & McClintock, M. K. (2003). Fear of novelty in infant rats predicts adult corticosterone dynamics and an early death. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100, 16131-16136. PDF

Hawkley, L. C., Burleson, M. H., Berntson, G. G., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2003). Loneliness in everyday life: Cardiovascular activity, psychosocial context, and health behaviors. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 105-120. PDF

Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2003). Loneliness and pathways to disease. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 17 (Supplement 1), S98-S105. PDF

Thisted, R. A. (2003). Are there social determinants of health and disease? Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 46, S65-S73. PDF

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2002

Burleson, M. B., Poehlman, K. M., Hawkley, L. C., Ernst, J. M., Berntson, G. G., Malarkey, W. B., Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., Glaser, R., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2002). Stress-related immune changes in mid-aged older women: One-year consistency of individual differences. Health Psychology, 21, 321-331. PDF

Cacioppo, J. T. (2002). Social neuroscience: Understanding the pieces fosters understanding the whole and vice versa. American Psychologist, 57, 819-830. PDF

Cacioppo, J. T., & Brandon, M. E. (2002). Religious involvement and health: Complex determinism. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 204-206. PDF

Cacioppo, J. T., Hawkley, L. C., Berntson, G. G., Ernst, J. M., Gibbs, A. C., Stickgold, R., & Hobson, J. A. (2002). Lonely days invade the nights: Social modulation of sleep efficiency. Psychological Science, 13, 384-387. PDF

Cacioppo, J. T., Hawkley, L. C., Crawford, L. E., Ernst, J. M., Burleson, M. H., Kowalewski, R. B., Malarkey, W. B., Van Cauter, E., & Berntson, G. G. (2002). Loneliness and health: Potential mechanisms. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64, 407-417. PDF

Hughes, M. E., & Waite, L. J. (2002). Health in household context: Living arrangements and health in late middle age. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 43, 1-21. PDF

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CHASRS Newsletters

2005

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2004

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2003

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2002

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